A team of US scientists has reported that a novel long-acting antiretroviral drug shows potential in treating HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. Preliminary clinical studies have shown that hiv-infected people who receive a single dose of the drug have a reduced viral load, and that the drug remains active in the body more than six months after injection.
At present, the treatment of AIDS for the whole world mainly relies on highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV is a retrovirus, and its reverse transcription process is accomplished by the viral reverse transcriptase. In humans, antiretroviral therapy is what turns HIV infection from a deadly disease into a manageable chronic disease. However, this also means that AIDS patients need daily injections of drugs, which can lead to the development of drug-resistant HIV, seriously undermining the effectiveness of treatment. New long-acting drugs are needed to increase treatment options for those with drug-resistant STRAINS of HIV and to help patients adhere to treatment regimens, the study said.
“Gs-6207” is an ideal complement to combination therapy
Stephen Young, a scientist at Gilead In California, and his colleagues describe the development of a small molecule called GS-6207 that destroys HIV’s capsid, the protein coat that surrounds the virus’s genome. Building on past work, the researchers designed GS-6207 to bind tightly to viral capsid proteins, thus interfering with viral replication.
The team found that GS-6207 showed effective activity against multiple HIV strains in trials and worked in synergy with approved antiretroviral drugs, making it an ideal complement to combination therapies.
According to a clinical study involving 40 healthy individuals, GS-6207 was generally safe and well tolerated when administered by injection, and remained active in the body more than six months after injection.
The team then conducted a phase 1 clinical trial in 32 hiv-1 infected but untreated patients, which showed that after nine days of treatment, the patients’ viral load was reduced (but not completely cleared).
Most small-molecule antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV work by interfering with viral enzymes, but the latest findings support targeting viral capsid proteins to treat HIV infection.
The small molecule does not need to be administered frequently, making it a potential candidate for preventing HIV infection in at-risk groups, which needs to be further tested in future studies, the researchers said.
New good News for AIDS 2021: The most powerful latent reversal Method to Date improves the odds of HIV clearance
Scientists can improve the chances of getting rid of the HIV virus by reversing its latent status in two ways, according to new animal research published in the UK. This means of “activating” the hidden virus is the most powerful latent reversal method to date, and it opens a new door for the medical community to further understand the mechanism of virus reversal maintenance.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a retrovirus. However, current antiretroviral therapy does not eliminate HIV infection completely because the virus “hides” from the immune system by lying dormant in cells. Therefore, the clearance of HIV infection after long-term viral suppression therapy has been the focus of research.
The “shock and kill” method devised by the scientists involves flushing the virus out of dormant infected cells before it is cleared. However, current methods of “activating” hidden viruses have not been successful or effective.
The two studies used different methods to activate SIV in rusian monkeys and HIV in humanized mice. Emory University scientist Guedo Selwesteri and colleagues used a combined approach that activates interleukin-15, a signaling molecule essential to the immune response, and clears CD8+ lymphocytes, immune cells thought to inhibit viral transcription. This method significantly and consistently activated the virus in all the treated animals.
In the second paper, Victor Goscia, a scientist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and colleagues used a drug that activates the NF-Kappab signaling pathway, which triggers the expression of HIV genes, making it easier for the virus to be eliminated.
Accompanying news and views in the paper, the brigham and women’s hospital, many mexicans Richter, anfield said, although the two methods of “activation” combine the subsequent “kill” steps, to eliminate the reactivation of the virus, but they belong to have demonstrated the most powerful latent reverse method, and maintained for human understanding virus reverse mechanism provides a new understanding.
New vaccines reduce neutralizing antibody efficacy threshold
Bali Pulendran of Stanford University, Rama R. Mara, Eric Hunter, Cynthia A.Derdeyn, David Masopust of the University of Minnesota, and other researchers found that even when neutralizing antibody titers were low, T cell – induced vaccines also provided lasting protection against mucosal SHIV infection. The results were published online recently in Nature Medicine.
Recent work in HIV vaccines has focused on inducing a broad range of neutralizing antibodies, but it may be better to induce both neutralizing antibodies (nAb) and cellular responses. The researchers used HIV-coated trimers to immunize macaques that either induced nAb alone or in conjunction with a heteroviral vector to induce nAb and cellular immunity, including CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells. After 10 vaginal infections with autovirus, the protection rates in the two vaccine groups were 53.3% and 66.7%, respectively. A nAb titer greater than 300 is usually associated with protection, but a titer less than 300 is sufficient in the heterologous vector plus nAb group.
In this group, the protection was sustained, as the animals resisted six more infections after five months. Antigenic stimulation of T cells in in vitro vaginal tissue cultures triggers an antiviral response in myeloid and CD4+T cells. The researchers suggest that cellular immune responses can lower the nAb threshold needed to achieve high efficiency and lasting protection.