1,Drug treatment: the drugs for the treatment of this disease can be divided into central nervous stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics and antiepileptics, but the central nervous stimulants methylphenidate or d-amphetamine are commonly used. These are introduced as follows.
① Methylphenidate, namely Ritalin, is a commonly used drug at present. The dosage is 5 ~ 10mg each time, twice a day, taken in the morning and afternoon. Don’t use it in the evening to avoid insomnia. The daily dose of most children is less than 20mg. Since psychostimulants can affect physical development, it is recommended that children take them during study and stop taking them on weekends and holidays. Generally not used under the age of 6. This drug is not easy to produce drug resistance.
② Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine): it is also a commonly used drug. The dose is ~ 5mg each time, twice a day, taken in the morning and afternoon. The daily dosage of most children is less than 10mg. Pay attention to the changes of pulse and blood pressure. The side effects were insomnia, dizziness, loss of appetite and weight loss. We also stop taking it on Sundays and holidays to reduce its growth inhibitory side effects. Generally not used under the age of 3. The effect of long-term application of this drug on growth and development is more obvious than methylphenidate, but its effect is easier to estimate, which is considered to be its advantage. Moreover, it also has some antiepileptic effect, which is considered to be its advantage. Moreover, it also has some antiepileptic effect, which is more suitable for patients with convulsion at the same time.
③ Another psychostimulant, pemoline (cylert): it is considered to have obvious effect on ADHD. Its drug action time is long. It can be taken once before school in the morning. Less side effects, less anorexia and insomnia than d-amphetamine and methylphenidate. Children under the age of 6 had better not use it. The initial dose is 10mg. If the curative effect is not satisfactory, it can be increased by 20 ~ 40mg. This medicine has a slow effect. If it is effective, observation should also be stopped. There have been reports of liver delayed anaphylaxis, so liver function should be checked regularly during medication.
④ Caffeine: it is also effective for ADHD in children. Take 100 ~ 150mg twice a day, but the curative effect is not as good as piperazine and d-amphetamine.
⑤ Imipramine (tofranil): it is an antidepressant and has good curative effect on this disease. The dose is 10mg, and the common dose is ~ 50mg per day, depending on the child’s age and weight. The leucopenia expelled by this drug is often temporary and can return to normal after stopping the drug. After 4 weeks of taking the medicine, the white blood cell count should be checked once, and then the blood test should be carried out once every half month. In addition, it can also cause loss of appetite, urinary retention or * allergic reactions. It should not be used in children under 12 years old.
⑥ Antipsychotics: such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine are suitable for children with destructive behavior. ⑦ Antiepileptic drugs: such as phenytoin sodium and preeclampsia ketone, suitable for patients with convulsion. Avoid using barbiturates as sedatives, because sometimes they can aggravate symptoms.
In addition, central nervous stimulants Ritalin, methamphetamine and pimolin can be used optionally. Another kind of effective drugs – tricyclic antidepressants (promethazine, clomipramine and amitriptyline) can start with small doses, gradually increase to the effective dose, and then change to maintenance treatment.
The course of treatment depends on the severity of the disease. The mild ones take the medicine for 6 months to 1 year, and the severe ones take the medicine for 3 to 5 years. It is easy to pay attention to the symptoms if the medicine is stopped prematurely.
2,Physical therapy: compared with drugs, physical therapy has the characteristics of no side effects, dependence and significant curative effect. Transcranial microcurrent stimulation therapy this physical therapy is to stimulate the brain through microcurrent, which can directly regulate the brain to secrete a series of neurotransmitters and hormones that help to improve the symptoms of ADHD and tic, such as endorphin and hexylcholine. These hormones are involved in regulating a number of physiological and psychological activities of the human body, and can comprehensively improve the emotional instability, irritability and irritability of children with ADHD and tic Hyperactivity, etc.
3,Psychotherapy: drug treatment is symptomatic. Excessive movement is often controlled by drug treatment. At the same time, proper education and management in the family and school should not be ignored. The attitude towards children should be treated with patience, care and care. We should give positive discipline education to children’s bad behaviors and illegal behaviors, give more inspiration and encouragement, and reward them when they have made achievements in behavior treatment. We should not exert mental pressure, let alone scold or corporal punishment. For children with bad habits and learning difficulties, we should give more specific guidance, implement a regular life system, cultivate good habits, help them overcome learning difficulties and constantly enhance their confidence. The literature points out that drugs are effective, but the combination of drugs with education and behavioral guidance is more effective.
4,Cognitive behavioral therapy: it is effective in controlling hyperactivity, impulse control and aggressive behavior.