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The opiates are unrivalled in their ability to relieve pain. Opium is the dried milky exudate obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy plant (Papaver somniferum), which grows naturally throughout most of Turkey. Of the 20 or more alkaloids found in opium, only a few are pharmacologically active.
What is morphine? Morphine (MOP), an opioid receptor agonist, is 4% - 21% in opium, with an average of about 10%. The name of IUPAC is 7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methyl-morphinan-3,6-diol. The molecular formula is C17H19NO3 and the molecular weight is 285.3.
Morphine, alias: morphine, morphine Hydrochlride, morphina, morphinum. Morphine is the most important alkaloid in opium (content about 10-15%), which was first isolated from opium by French chemist f. zeltina in 1806. He experimented with the separated white powder on the dog and himself.
Opioids like heroin, morphine, OxyContin, and fentanyl occupy a spot in the public imagination as particularly dangerous and addictive substances. Amid an addiction epidemic with no end in sight, this class of drugs has been given special attention in the news, funding bills, and the 2017 President’s Commission on Combatting Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis. But does the evidence justify that view?